Τετάρτη, 16 Νοεμβρίου 2011

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION


It all began with the concern of applying one of the concepts of democracy fairly to the American colonies.
The British Kingdom had developed colonies on American soil, mostly around what is now, Boston. As they expanded, the English government decided to impose taxes. The Colonist argued (through a democratic point of view) that Parliament could not to tax them because they did not have representatives in the Parliament.
Other crisis over taxes and authority developed into riots (Boston Tea Party). During these years Benjamin Franklin (a self taught man of extraordinary knowledge and intelligence, a genius of his time) was sent to England to try to defend with no avail the American colonist’s point of view.
In April, 1775, British troops at Lexington exchanged fire with armed colonists and the American Revolution had begun.
A month later in May, 1775, the second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and wrote the Declaration of Independence. Drafted largely by Thomas Jefferson (a scholar, a man who had read the philosophy of the Enlightenment Age, and a brilliant mind). He stated, a ruler has power only if given by the people he governs. The Congress declared the independence of the American colonies on July 4th, 1776.
The war lasted from 1775 to 1783. Most of the military leadership during the was assumed by General Washington. Though controversial in his military capabilities, he had the indispensable quality that will allow an American victory. He was a man of untamable resilience. He was a man of iron will, when it was the quality that was the most important. Starting in 1777, France began secretly to arm the American colony, then brought her Navy and Army to help defeat the English at Yorktown in October 17, 1781. At this point the American had won the war.
In 1783 the Treaty of Paris with England is ratified and American Independence becomes a reality.
France sent money, troops, arms, and a fleet to help defeat the English army. French contributions was so important that it doubled the French national debt, already huge, and was one of the key factors in the over throw of a few years later the French King Louis XVI. An heroic figure fighting all along with Washington was a French aristocrat, the Marquis De Lafayette, who was a professional soldier but also one of the great thinkers and diplomats of his time. He became a Hero to all Americans.
The newly independent nation had to create, almost from scratch, a government, and a Constitution. There were 13 colonies and they needed to be bound in a nation, while preserving their individuality. The men who tackled the task to write the Constitution and later the Bill of rights, were men who had read the philosophy of the Enlightenment Age, Locke and Montesquieu, who themselves were inspired by the first Greek and Roman democracies.
Their main objective was to balance the three main powers: the Executive power: The President, the Judiciary power: the System of National Courts, the Legislative power: the Congress made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate.The constitution was ratified by 9 states in 1788 thus making it a legal and official document. To this constitution was added a Bill of Rights in December 1791 of extreme importance because it protected such rights as freedom of speech, freedom of press and freedom of religion outlined the rights of persons accused of crimes and giving protection against unreasonable searches of peoples homes.
What is important is to understand the way this constitution is helping the country to be governed.
First and most important:
The congress, which members have the task to make law, (a law is a rule to be obeyed by its citizens) but even most importantly, they are elected to represent the citizen, which in this case is synonym of serving the citizen. A true democracy is a country where the laws and rules are the ones that the citizen wants. their congressmen working to serve the citizens and their goals.
To ensure that these law will be obeyed the country needs an executive power, which is the president, who the founding fathers gave strong power, but not enough to become a Tyrant.
The legislative power comes in to arbitrate differences in the reading of the law between; two people; a citizen and the government; the executive and the congress.
Because of the exceptional qualities of the men who wrote the CONSTITUTION AND THE BILL OF RIGHTS, it is the thread almost unaltered that binds the United States of America together to this very day and was used as models by other people of the world.
It is an extraordinary legacy that allows its citizens to enjoy Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Reunion, the possibility by ones vote to govern his own country, and that should not be taken for granted.
Democratic regime over the 3000 year that men are known to have been able to write, has been on the surface of the earth for only a very limited time, and for a very small number of nations. Democracy is not only a form of government but it is also a philosophy, which enable a person to walk with his head up, make his or her ideas known without being imprisoned the next day. Democracy needs constant attention. Keeping the citizen educated, preventing the leaders from straying from the constitution.

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου